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Car Mechanism - Overview
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Car Mechanism - Overview

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How does a car work - A complete overview of car mechanism



Cars are the one which most people are crazy of ! About 165,000 cars are manufactured every day. Have you ever wondered how does a car work? What mechanism drives a car when you push the accelerator?

A car is an automobile (means ?self moving?) which converts the energy hidden in fuels (like petrol, diesel, gasoline) into mechanical energy (moving gears and wheels). The challenge in the industry is to build a car which generates as much as power from each drop of fuel.



When the car is started, the ignition system is turned on. Current flows from the battery to ignition coil through primary winding. The cam opens and closes the contact breaker points according to the number of engine cylinders. Cam is connected directly to camshaft. The condenser absorbs the back EMF from the magnetic field, where high voltage of 22000 V is produced by the secondary winding. The rotor rotates according to the ignition timing inside the distributor and high voltage is transferred to the spark plug.

Consider a petroleum car, the simplest way to create motion is to burn the petroleum inside an engine - Internal combustion. Almost all cars use 4 stroke combustion engine. The piston moves up and down inside the cylinder. The spark plug ignites the fuel/air mixture, which are obtained and released using valves. The valves are driven by a timing belt or chain, which is in turn driven by the crankshaft. The oil pump, connected to the timing belt draws oil to lubricate the bearings and cam shafts which open and close the valves. As you hit the gas pedal (accelerator), the throttle body valve opens to allow more air into the engine. ECU detects and balances the air fuel ratio.

The power of the engine is sent to transmission, which has number of gears to manage the efficient use of the power generated. First gear generates high rpm and lot of torque, but not very high speed as engine will reach its power limit. If another gear is added, the wheels gain much higher speed as the engine doesn?t have to work as hard as to get there. The same flow continues: speed increases as the gears are added. The clutch disconnects the engine from the gearbox so the gears can be changed without damaging. Engines get very hot and are required to be cooled frequently. The coolant and radiator does this job.










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